Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), EMF, radio
VDE
2018-03-15 1440 0

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), EMF, radio – Testing and certification at the VDE Institute

Not only do electrical products need to work flawlessly and therefore be safe and free from interference, they are not allowed to affect any other devices nor create any unauthorized disturbances to the grid system during operation either.  Effective and efficient use of the radio spectrum must be guaranteed for radio systems. The VDE Institute performs EMF and radio tests based on international directives, standards and laws.

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Hartmut Berndt
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The VDE Institute’s testing and certification activities enjoy great international recognition, which is mainly due to the high testing quality and the integrity of the workers.  To that end, our testing laboratory is accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 and a recognized testing laboratory (CBTL) in the IECEE’s international certification system (CB system). There are accreditations from the Federal Network Agency, the German Accreditation Body (DAkkS). We have also been designated as a technical service for motor vehicles and components by the Federal Motor Vehicle Transport Authority (KBA). Furthermore, the VDE is recognized as a notified body with identification number 0366 at the EU for EMC Directive 2014/30/EU and the Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU.

We perform the following EMC and radio tests, among others, according to harmonized European standards:

  • EMC – Emissions testing
  • EMC – Interference immunity testing
  • EMC – Harmonics and flickering in the electricity grid
  • Radio tests according to Article 3 (2) of the Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU (RED)
  • EMC testing and electric tests for vehicles and vehicle components

To perform these EMC tests, the VDE Institute has excellent testing and measurement equipment that ensures quick and efficient testing.

Services and tests

We are your partner for EMC and radio testing for the following

  • Automation technology, laboratory devices
  • Electronic installation switches
  • Electric tools
  • Radio equipment and radio modules (Wi-Fi, ZigBee, ZWave, Bluetooth, etc.)
  • Household appliances
  • High-current circuit breakers
  • IT Equipment (ITE)
  • Motor vehicles and components (automotive)
  • Lights and lighting accessories
  • Medical devices
  • Microwave devices
  • Pedelecs (< 25 km/h) and quick e-bikes (45 km/h)
  • Solar inverters
  • Many additional electric devices, components and systems

Our services in detail

  • EMC and radio testing on products, systems and components
  • Creating EMC and radio test reports as a basis for the CE mark 
  • Certifications with VDE EMC marks
  • Tests according to customer specification
  • Automotive:
    - Tests for obtaining the E1 mark (Federal Motor Vehicle Transport Authority, KBA) for components according to ECE regulations
    - Tests according to factory and ISO standards
  • Radio: 
    - Tests according to ETSI standards for proving compliance with the requirements of the RE (2014/53/EU) Directive for Short-Range Devices (SRD), Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Zigbee, ZWave and other radio Technologies
    - EU type examination certificate from a notified body according to the Radio Equipment Directive (2014/53/EU) if the requirements of harmonized standards cannot be met or can only be partially met or if devices are equipped with radio modules (combined equipment)
    - Issuing CB test reports and CB certificates for EMC based on IEC(CISPR) Standards
    - Emissions measurements according to FCC (USA) or IC (Canada) regulations

Test reports, certificates and additional services

  • Certification with the VDE EMC mark or VDE GS mark
  • EMC and radio test reports as a basis for the CE mark
  • EU certificates of conformity
  • CB test reports and CB certificates for EMC
  • Test reports for the “Self-Declaration of Conformity (SDoC)” for the FCC (USA), test reports according to IC standards (Canada) 
  • Certification of components and vehicles by the KBA (E1 mark)
  • Statement of conformity on EMC or radio standards or the Radio Equipment and EMC Directive
  • Training sessions on the basics of EMC, radio equipment or special EMC or radio standards
  • Standards consultation during the development process
  • On-site measurements of EMC or the electromagnetic fields (EMF) in your equipment or premises
  • Worldwide approval of radio equipment and radio modules

Here are some of the standards and directives that we cover:

  • EMC Directive 2014/30/EU (CE mark)
  • Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU (CE mark)
  • American (FCC) and Canadian (IC) requirements
  • ECE-R 10 (Electromagnetic compatibility of vehicles for obtaining the E1 mark)
  • Customer specifications, mainly in automotive EMC and electric tests

Notified Body EMC

The manufacturer must ensure that the products that they manufacture are electromagnetically compatible and must declare that protection requirements have been met according to the EMC law. Normally, a device’s compliance with the protection requirements is substantiated by subjecting the device to a test according to applicable, harmonized standards.

However, the directive also gives manufacturers the opportunity to provide evidence in another way.

Irrespective of which process has been selected for the conformity evaluation: According to the provisions of Annex II, III and IV of the EMC Directive 2014/30/EU, the manufacturer must produce technical documents that state that the device has fulfilled the basic requirements of the EMC directive.

The manufacturer can optionally have the technical documents evaluated by a notified body. Involvement from a notified body is particularly recommended

  • if the manufacturer wishes for an independent, professional body to confirm their considerations on proving compliance with protection requirements
  • if harmonized EMC norms have only been partially applied or applied with a discrepancy due to a product’s peculiarities

The result of a type examination according to the EMC Directive is an EU type examination certificate according to EMC Directive 2014/30/EU together with an evaluation Report.

We can also issue you an EU type examination certificate if you have not performed any tests with our Company.

Measuring equipment and specifications

Our EMC test center has modern testing and measurement systems to offer you high-quality results. Quick measurements are guaranteed by using the time-domain measuring method (TDEMI, ESR). With our large anechoic chamber (10 m measuring distance), state-of-the-art devices are at your disposal, even for large devices and equipment.

Furthermore, we maintain a series of special testing devices, such as a high-current system up to 5000 A, for performing EMC tests on electronic circuit breakers and test equipment for solar inverters to meet the special needs of our customers.

One special highlight is the new radio testing facility by Rohde & Schwarz (TS8997), which enables automatic measurement of Wi-Fi or Bluetooth devices with up to eight (8!) antennas (channels) according to the latest requirements in the 2.4GHz and even 5GHz (EN 301 893 V2.1.1) frequency range. 

The power supply ranges from 230/400V, 125 A, 50 Hz DC to 1000 Hz 108 A/3-phase electric power. Water, wastewater and compressed air from the turntable are the available media.

In addition to the testing equipment listed below, we have extensive tools and accessories for monitoring test samples or for modifications. These include a LIN bus, CAN bus, Flexray, fiber optic transceiver, current measurement per fiber optic and additional monitoring options directly on the circuit boards. There is even a Rhode & Schwarz audio analyzer available. Measurements using microphones can be carried out in collaboration with our acoustic laboratory.

Take advantage of our many different testing options

Measurement rooms

  • Anechoic chamber with 10-meter measurement distance and 6-meter turntable diameter. Size: 23 m x 16 m x 10 m, door size 4 m x 4 m, load-bearing capacity 5 tons. A shielded room (2.5 m x 2.5 m) is located in the basement below the turntable for any ancillary equipment required for the test sample.
  • Large cabin (110 m2) with ground-level access
  • Five additional shielded rooms (15 to 25 m2)
  • Shielded test room for automotive impulse tests
  • Compact, fully anechoic chamber (20 MHz to 3GHz) for radiated immunity and pre-measurements of emissions (3 m measuring distance)
  • Anechoic chamber for automotive components (ACTC) with an area of 6.5 m x 5 m and permanently mounted test bench for quick measurements and fast set-up times
  • Installation site

Emitted interferences

  • Measurement in the anechoic chamber from 30 MHz to 18 (40) GHz, 3 m and 10 m measuring distance
  • Several modern TDEMI X and ESR time-domain measurement systems for extremely quick preliminary and final measurements
  • Measuring stations for interference voltage with an artificial grid network up to 200 A/phase
  • Click analyzers with 4 channels
  • Fully automatic, very fast measuring station with TDEMI X for measuring radio interference power
  • Loop antennas for measuring the magnetic field strength, 9 kHz – 30 MHz
  • The ability to measure emissions up to 26 GHz (40 GHz)
  • FCC-measurements (110 V, 60 Hz, 3-phase up to 100 A/phase in the turntable)

System perturbations

We conduct precise measurements of harmonic currents, voltage fluctuations and flickers using linear amplifiers (no switching power supplies) up to 75 A/phase, even for Japanese and Korean grid impedances.

  • Quick measurement of harmonics and flickers simultaneously on three phases
  • Power source: 3-phase, continuous output 25 kVA per phase, short-term output (~ 1 hr.), 37 kVA per phase, frequency: DC – 5 kHz, also suitable for Airbus requirements (900 Hz)

Interference immunity

  • Transient disturbances such as surge (8 kV), burst (7 kV) with coupling networks up to 100 A/phase, ESD (30 kV)
  • 20 MHz to 18 GHz radiated immunity with high-power amplifiers without modifying the test sample directly in the large anechoic chamber or in a second full absorption room (FAR)
  • Changes in voltage and brief interruptions up to 100 A/phase, three-phase
  • Conducted immunity (coupling network up to 63 A/phase)
  • Magnetic field with energy frequency (up to 3 m x 3 m x 3 m volume)
  • Interference immunity against grid voltage harmonics (up to 100 A/phase, continuous current)
  • Many different manipulators for immunity testing

Radio equipment and radio modules

  • Radio measuring station with Rohde & Schwarz TS8997
  • Measuring station for robot lawn mowers and other radio equipment below 150 kHz according to EN 303 447
  • FSW spectrum analyzer up to 67 GHz
  • Suitable antennas
  • Fully anechoic radio measuring room with 3 m measuring distance (under construction)

EMF (electromagnetic fields, protecting people in fields)

  • Field probes for magnetic fields, electric fields from 5 Hz to 3Ghz

Testing and certification of radio equipment

The VDE Institute performs radio tests according to the RED Directive

Radio tests

According to Article 2.1 of the Radio Equipment Directive (2014/53/EU), radio equipment is defined as “an electrical or electronic product, which intentionally emits and/or receives radio waves for the purpose of radio communication and/or radiodetermination, or an electrical or electronic product which must be completed with an accessory, such as antenna, so as to intentionally emit and/or receive radio waves for the purpose of radio communication and/or radio determination”.

The VDE Institute performs radio tests according to the RED Directive

According to Article 2.1 of the Radio Equipment Directive (2014/53/EU), radio equipment is defined as “an electrical or electronic product, which intentionally emits and/or receives radio waves for the purpose of radio communication and/or radiodetermination, or an electrical or electronic product which must be completed with an accessory, such as antenna, so as to intentionally emit and/or receive radio waves for the purpose of radio communication and/or radio determination”.

For the Radio Equipment Directive, we review for you the EMC, spectrum utilization, and the safety of your devices and radio equipment. We have extensive experience in testing combined equipment (equipment with a radio interface).

We test close-range radio technologies (up to 100 m) such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee and even proprietary radio technologies for remote controls or sensors (e.g. in the 868 MHz band). We cover GSM and LTE via partners.
Furthermore, we offer you an EU type examination certificate through our notified body according to Directive 2014/53/EU.

 

The VDE Institute is a notified body for radio equipment

Notified body for radio equipment

The Radio Equipment Directive (RED) 2014/53/EU requires consulting a notified body if a harmonized standard was not applied or only partially applied for the fundamental requirement, “efficient and effective use of the radio spectrum”, according to Article 3 (2).

The VDE Institute is a notified body for radio equipment

The Radio Equipment Directive (RED) 2014/53/EU requires consulting a notified body if a harmonized standard was not applied or only partially applied for the fundamental requirement, “efficient and effective use of the radio spectrum”, according to Article 3 (2).

This is very often the case when a radio module that has already been tested is installed in a piece of equipment that until now had no wireless interface. This creates what is known as combined equipment. In these cases, consulting a notified body is usually mandatory, since the manufacturer cannot submit a full radio test report for the new, combined device.

We have been designated as a notified body for radio systems under EU number 0366 (NANDO database) and, based on document inspection, offer to issue the following documents: 

  • EU type examination certificate according to Directive 2014/53/EU
  • Evaluation report on EU type examination certificate

We can also issue you an EU type examination certificate if you have not performed any tests with our company.

The VDE Institute assists you with worldwide certification

Worldwide certification for wireless products

Our international service assists you with certifying your radio equipment and radio modules worldwide.

The VDE Institute assists you with worldwide certification

Our international service assists you with certifying your radio equipment and radio modules worldwide.

Radio products are subject to legal regulations in nearly every part of the world. As such, certifications or registrations in many different countries are the prerequisite for legally bringing products to market that use radio technology for communication.

In addition to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), such products mainly need to comply with regulations on spectrum utilization set forth in the applicable statutory requirements of the respective countries. In Europe, it is mandatory to use the Radio Equipment Directive (RED). In many countries, products tested by VDE according to the RED and equipped with an EU type examination certificate can be accordingly certified and approved. In other countries, either local testing is mandatory or test reports can be used, such as ones according to FCC rules in the USA, to fulfil local certification requirements.

Thanks to our international network, we are your ideal partner for processing the local, necessary tests and the certifications based on pre-existing test reports.

Our special service for you:
We always keep track of the validity of existing certificates for you and timely inform you so that your product can continue to be legally marketed in the target markets.

EMC of vehicles and vehicle components

In modern vehicles, EMC plays a great role in the safe function of extensive electronics. When it comes to EMC and electrical testing of vehicles and vehicle components, the VDE Institute offers you testing and certification services that are tailored to your needs. While doing so, we test according to the national and international standards and factory specifications of large automotive and truck manufacturers (OEM). Our portfolio also includes tests according to customer specifications, which include, for instance, environmental and mechanical tests as well.

Legal sphere

(KBA type approval, CE mark)

We are a Category A and D (no. KBA-P 00021-97) technical service–notified by the Federal Motor Vehicle Authority (KBA)– for EMC (vehicles and components, four-wheeled and two and three-wheeled vehicles) and acoustic signals.  We can offer you full approval from the Federal Motor Vehicle Transport Authority for quick e-bikes or electric two-wheelers (S-Pedelec) up to 45 km/h

Measuring equipment

  • Radiated immunity test with antennas up to 200 V/m
  • Stripline testing
  • TEM cell
  • BCI method (bulk current injection)
  • Near-field simulation (radiated immunity) with special near-field antennas
  • Emissions measurements (CISPR 25)
  • Emissions testing of magnetic field
  • Testing high-voltage components
  • Comprehensive simulation support (CAN, LIN, Flexray, current measurement, etc.)
  • Water, wastewater, compressed air
  • Special high-voltage supply option via filter (up to 1000 V / 200 A)
  • Near-field antenna testing, “cellphone test” (ISO 11452-9)
  • Modern dynamometer for EMC testing of pedal-driven two-wheelers (pedelecs, e-bikes)

Our expertise for your market success

The experts at the VDE testing and certification institute are available for any questions you may have on directive-specific options related to technical standards and will gladly explain in a conversation the requirements for conformity with the recognized technology rules.

Our customers have an external engineering office at their disposal, if necessary. This allows for the creation of solutions to optimize circuits and devices for EMC in such a way that meets requirements.

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